Realism provided by Nusura’s Simulation Deck Technology

Animated Don't Panic

All organizations these days are subject to crisis and emergency management disasters. Those that take the time to plan for their worst-case scenarios and be prepared in advance will survive and even thrive. Those that believe it “can’t happen to us” will not.

Perhaps equally important, whether they are nonprofit organizations, local, state or federal agencies, large or medium size businesses, or universities and colleges, those folks that don’t understand the impact that social media can have on crisis and emergency management are destined to suffer even more serious consequences than they may realize.

It has been said that imagination is the true sign of intelligence. When it comes to technology and crisis and emergency management, which is evolving daily at speeds often beyond our comprehension, there can be no argument that imagination often makes the difference between the mundane and the next level of creativity.

Recently we teamed with a relatively new company based in Denver, Colo., Nusura, Inc. – “nusura” is a Swahili term meaning “one who survives” – this company is one of the newest innovative companies on deck offering a way for organizations to test their social media and public outreach skills through the use of a training tool they call SimulationDeck.

SimulationDeck is a secure Web portal that replicates online communications tools, including such social media as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, as well as organizational websites and blogs.

As many of my readers know, for years my firm has offered strategic crisis planning and issues management alongside emergency operations planning, training and webinars. When we were asked by a client to consider how best to bring them into the real world of social media we sought out and found Nusura, Inc. The teaming partnership has resulted in a significant contract with a federal agency. We believe our combined resources, talents and experience and a similar set of values on how to handle clients and business in general brought us to the front of the bidder pack.

Nusura’s president is Jim Chestnutt, an experienced public information officer formerly with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Chestnutt and his team of former FEMA employees set out to train people on how to get information out to their stakeholders in a timely, accurate and coordinated fashion during emergencies.

We saw benefit and value to application of their technology for not just life-threatening situations, we also saw the benefit to planning for the always prevalent developing crisis around such internal issues as reorganizations, downsizing, sexual harassment charges, ethics charges and legal entanglements that any organization can face.

Chestnutt and I both found that in after-action reports from actual and exercise events – be it an internal crisis or an external emergency – that the public information function in major exercises was not being tested in a realistic way, which is what set me out to find a way to correct the issue for my clients.

Chestnutt says that the pressure created by mock media and those tasked with testing the public information element in mock exercises didn’t compare to the reality of handling even a small emergency.

Nusura, Inc. has former public information officers and field agents from all levels of government who have experienced all sorts of internal and external crises and emergencies. SimulationDeck is the creative offspring of this group of talented professionals to mimic what happens online and in the media during an actual crisis or emergency.

The simulation Web portal has nine websites which emulate social media sites: SimulationBook includes Facebook’s core features; Bleater simulates Twitter; the blogging platform is called Frogger; their YouTube look-alike is Ewe Tube; there is a site for agency or organizational news; incident information; the Exercise Times Daily, a Web-based newspaper that features live reader comments; SimDeck News, a Web-based TV station; and KEXN Radio.

SimulationDeck doesn’t require special software, so it can work on any platform or Internet-connected device. Chestnutt notes that one person working the SimulationDeck could act as 10 people. This person can file a newspaper article, then post on the agency’s website and then act as the Governor’s press secretary and announce a surprise press conference.

Chestnutt told that “Things happen instantly, and any simulation player can generate an enormous amount of injects, as fast as they can type and enter it.”

The tool was recently used during the Vibrant Response 13, a U.S. Army North national-level field training exercise that had 9,000 service members and civilians from the military, as well as state and federal agencies.

Dan Manuszewski, Chief of Public Affairs for the U.S. Army North, told the editor at that it’s increasingly important to practice all forms of communications and that includes social media as it becomes increasingly popular.

We note that many of our college and university clients, who have been reluctant to engage in social media as a communications tool, are becoming aware of its importance when they see that their students and staff are more quickly informed through Twitter and Facebook Smartphone communications than the organization’s systems. We see great opportunity to bring these folks and many other organizations and agencies into the real social media and mass media world through such applications as SimulationDeck.

Like it or not, social media is becoming a major communications platform, especially for the current generations. Those organizations that fail to train their employees in the proper use of social media are doing a disservice to the employees and their stakeholders.

Manuszewski says that we need to make sure we understand the entire information environment – from the traditional media to the media that people are using now, like social media.

Chestnutt says that the company is listening carefully to feedback from its users and continually making improvements.

Dr. L. Darryl Armstrong, Armstrong and Associates, is a consultant and counselor. He can be reached at or 1-888-340-2006 or

Plan for the “Extreme Case” – Prior to a Hurricane

Emergency checklist
As Hurricane Irma approaches, we thought we would share some smart hurricane
preparation tips. The key is to be prepared, have a plan, know where to go and try
not to freak out. Stay calm and plan for the worse case scenario.

1. For a big storm like Irma, you need enough water to drink for 7 days.
The water does NOT have to be bottled. You can simply buy water containers
and fill them with tap water.

2. Buy plastic sheeting and duct tape. Use the plastic sheeting to line the
tub. Then you can fill your tub with water without it leaking out. You’ll
use this to flush the toilet and for basic cleaning if the water goes out.

3. Have enough food on hand to eat for 7 days – food bars and other
packaged food is good.

4. Buy a large number of Ziploc-like plastic bags – large and small. You’ll
use them to protect papers and other valuables AND you’ll fill them 3/4
full of water and stuff the freezer full. Do that by midweek to be sure
they are frozen when/if the power goes out over the weekend. It will keep
the refrigerator colder. Do NOT set your fridge on the lowest setting.

5. Get a portable radio that receives AM and FM. NOAA radio is good, but
doesn’t get you information on evacuations and other instructions. Get

6. Get LED flashlights and/or lanterns. They run forever on fewer
batteries. But you still need plenty of extra batteries.

7. Get large plastic boxes. If you put your valuables, photos, and papers
in plastic bags inside the boxes, they will likely be okay. Put the bins in
a high place, second floor, or safe room if you don’t plan on taking them
with you.

8. Do your laundry this week! Lol

9. Start running your ice makers now and bagging the ice in freezer bags.
Fill as much space in between your freezer items with these bags as you can.

10. Freeze regular tap water for pets, cleaning or drinking in
Tupperware plastic-type containers. REMEMBER to leave a small bit of space between
the top of the water & the lids so the ice expands but doesn’t crack the

11. Start using up your perishables to make more room for ice in the

12. Fill up all vehicles with gasoline, check tires & oil.

13. Get your cash from ATM, at least enough for 7-days to get you through tolls and gas out of  town. Call your bank if you plan on leaving the state so they don’t freeze
your card for out-of-area “suspicious” transactions.

14. Screenshot all of your important docs & send to your email. Take
originals in sealed bags or plastic bins.

15. Prepare pet / livestock food & supplies. Vet records in case you need
to shelter then at a storm-safe facility.

16. Make evacuation plans and share with family members so they know where
you’re headed.


18. Gather old rags & beach towels for use on your windowsills. Even with the best windows & shutters, water seeping from the wind pressure happens. A few damp towels
is better than soaked drywall or floors!

19. Shutter windows and doors and bring everything outside into your garage 
or house NOW. Do not wait until the day before. Better to get done early
and relax than wait until it’s too late, ESPECIALLY IF YOU ARE MANDATORY
PERSONNEL (hospital employee or first responder).

20. If you don’t already have your hurricane supplies get them now. Shelves are already empty in most places.

Although these are great tips, please rely on official
preparation, evacuation and emergency information available at the National
Hurricane Center and

Millennial sense of entitlement, and enhancing performance in workplace

What is the single greatest complaint leveled against Millennials?

Many employers would say a “sense of entitlement” that is entirely out of proportion to this generation’s age and experience.

As the authors of “The M-Factor” say, “This generation shows signs of being far too impressed with their own value and importance.”

Competition In BusinessNow, I acknowledge this trait is tempered by individual personalities. While one Millennial may exude “cockiness and arrogance” that turns off even his/her peers, another one is a model of humility.

Despite their intelligence and competency in many areas, the Millennial has a lot to learn. But, in a different time in a different way, didn’t we all?

Millennials may expect to advance quickly. Once they have mastered their current responsibilities, they want to be promoted to higher positions or greater responsibility NOW.

They often have a very low tolerance for the mundane work that usually falls to the lowest rung of the workplace ladder. They don’t understand the concept of seniority, and to them that is an anathema of their value system. They value capability over experience and believe that a fresh, young perspective is always more valuable.

The ideas of “doing your time” within a role and job and “paying your dues” just do not make sense to them and are at odds with their expectations.

In my mind, members of this generation can be overly-sensitive. This can certainly be a factor in their employment lives.

Let’s remember that many of the parents of the M-Generation believed and practiced that praise and self-esteem were the first priorities in parenting and teaching realms. The child learns that if you play on the little league baseball team, you get a trophy for showing up. Turn in your homework, and get a gold star for turning something in with your name on it regardless of the content.

While effort is important and trying your best is important, life, and certainly the business world, does not necessarily hand out trophies for these worthy attributes.

This article looks at the key criteria necessary to minimize conflict and enhance performance in the work place when working with Millennials.

First, when recruiting and interviewing don’t promise more than you can deliver.

When hiring a member of the M-Generation, be realistic about the work that he will do.

Present a potential M-Generation employee with an exact description of the job. You want to make sure that he/she understands that the job may not include conducting the weekly briefings.

Second, take advantage of the positive view of the M-Generation’s desire to do more and to tackle larger responsibilities.

Take advantage of their eagerness and strong desire to be involved, and reward these traits whenever you can.

Always give M-Generation employees specific parameters to work within, clarify what they will be held accountable for, what the schedule and deadline is, and then let them engage.

Finally, determine what “reward” is in the M-Generation new hire’s mind.

For the Millennial, rewards don’t have to be big to be meaningful. A simple gesture will go a long way. Recently in talking with an Assistant Chief of Police, he told me his Millennials want to be called by their first names, asked about their family (yes, you will need to remember the wife’s name and the kids’ names), and they want to be praised for being to work on time.

Baby Boomers and GenXers are often confused and bewildered by the simple things that Millennials don’t know about living and working as an adult.

Research shows that the most common problems include unfamiliarity with workplace etiquette, what are appropriate communication venues, and what boundaries should exist between professional, personal and private matters.

However, our biggest concerns may be associated with the M-Generations’ use of social media. Often Millennials are not discrete about what they post on social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter or Instagram. The photos and comments they may put online after a weekend beach trip with their college buddies may cause you some alarm.

To deal with this behavior and not exacerbate the situation or create high blood pressure for yourself, you must learn to accept that is the new “norm” while learning how to negotiate a mutually acceptable working arrangement with these employees.

Does this mean we will just have to agree with such behavior? No.

Although we believe these “kids” should know this stuff already, they don’t. The smart thing to do is to understand the Millennial sense of what is appropriate. Then take the time to communicate the guidelines and rules – written and unwritten – for professional etiquette and interaction in your organization.

The upside to all of this is that most Millennials enjoy being coached and mentored – remember they had a unique relationship with their parents and teachers in this regard. Offer them pointers and tips on workplace etiquette.

You will probably find that they are grateful for advice that will help them move up the professional ladder and achieve the greater responsibilities that they want. It can be a win-win situation.

L. Darryl Armstrong is a crisis prevention and management consultant. He is reachable at 1-888-340-2006 or His website is He is available on a limited basis for speaking engagements and workshops.

Sources: The M- Factor: How the Millennial Generation is Rocking the Workplace” by Lynne C. Lancaster and David Stillman (Harper Collins, 2010)

PWC.Com – Millennials in the Work Place – Reshaping the World

8 Keys to successfully communicating in a crisis


Whether they are natural disasters, massive power outages, water line breaks, work stoppage, riots or robberies, or executive and financial corruption, a crisis can happen at any time and any place. All crisis can and will disrupt your normal flow of business. When there is a change in your day-to-day business, communication is critical.

Your response to a crisis must be swift and all communications clear and ongoing until the event is resolved. These are some of the lessons learned from my 40 years of preventing and when necessary, managing them.

  • All crises result in volumes of requests and inquiries from many different people.

Whether it is man-made or natural, when the crisis hits there will be a volume of questions from your customers, suppliers, government officials, family members and the media. This can and most likely will overwhelm you if you are not prepared. Inquiries come from those directly involved in the event and from their families, regulators, shareholders, business partners and others. You must provide answers; in today’s world of social media, any event, not matter how small, can quickly become very big.

  • Major events create major communications challenges.

When events impact things outside of your company walls, the communications infrastructure including the Internet, telephone, the Short-Message-Services (SMS), etc. will be impacted. This will create challenges beyond your normal operations. When planning for a crisis, always expect that many of the venues for communicating may be down or out of operation and consider what your alternatives are. As we saw during the major ice storm a few years ago, normal cell phone communications were interrupted; however, SMS text messaging was available. Be prepared to adjust your communications by considering what you will do if the power grid goes down or the Internet is not working.

  • Consider how you can use all communications channels.

It is vitally important to consider every venue for getting your message out and feedback as quickly as possible during a crisis. Practice these optional communications before a crisis occurs. Many organizations are now relying on SMS text messaging during regional events, yet it has limitations that might not make it the best option. By its very nature SMS is designed to carry short messages. The length of that message will be determined by the carrier company you use. If those messages are longer than the company allows, they will be broken into smaller messages and transmitted randomly. Different stakeholders prefer to receive messages in different ways while some prefer text, others prefer voicemail.

  • Have a plan to communicate with employees.

Keeping your employees informed during a crisis and after is critical. A critical piece of any business continuity plan is how to deliver emergency notifications. The first emergency notification should go to your employees. Keep them informed on a regular basis and you will build trust, credibility, and loyalty and demonstrate that you care about them. Use basic message mapping (we will discuss this in a future column) and ensure your organization’s key values and principles are in everything you transmit. All information shared by you will be shared as well by the employees. Expect this and understand they can be a valuable asset in getting the story out you want to get out. Many employees will by chain of command make direct contact with your managers. It is essential that all management is kept in the loop and fully briefed along with any executives.

  • Communicating with employees’ families is critical.

The families of all employees will expect you as the business owner to know what is going on. After the 9/11 terror event and Hurricane Katrina and Superstorm Sandy, to name just a few, many families were disappointed that the companies really knew nothing. Many business didn’t even log incoming calls for follow-up. Companies can make better use of technology today to handle such situations if they plan in advance and practice their plan. Consider, for example, what you are using to track your employees right now. Do you have an electronic badge system for your employees, time cards or do they have to sign in? If not, consider all these alternatives. All such approaches can contribute to a database to help you determine who might be in a dangerous situation.

  • It is essential to be proactive.

In a crisis, if you have a database established for employees and their families, immediately reach out to them rather than waiting for them to call you. In advance gather contact information for family or next of kin and keep it on file and up-to-date. Do it now. Even if you don’t have a great deal to say at first and most likely you will not, let family members know what you have and share it. Keep them updated and posted at every step.

  • Provide accurate information.

Share the information you can verify and validate. Equally important is to tell people what you don’t know. With social media (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, text messaging) the news within seconds will hit the streets and certainly within 15 minutes. You will not have much time to prepare. If possible get trusted “eyes and ears” on the ground to be your source. Share only reliable information that you gather from trusted sources. If EMTs tell you they have taken a specific number of victims to two hospitals, share that fact. They are a reliable source. Then call the hospitals or even better get your observers to those hospitals to gather the information for you. In advance, develop contacts with fire departments, police departments, EMTs and related emergency personnel. Be sure to get to know the public information officers at each of these departments. You will then be able to call on those contacts for reliable information.

  • Transmit accurate and verified information as quickly as possible.

Once you have reliable, verified and accurate information from trusted sources, get those messages out to all your stakeholders as quickly as possible. Use traditional and social media and your phone banks, email systems, SMS systems, all the venues you have decided upon and practiced in advance. In your preplanning and practice consider all the possible crisis or emergencies that could occur and outline your pre-determined responses. Each of these possible crisis or emergencies should have media holding statements pre-approved by top management and readily available for use in the first 15 minutes of the event. Adapt these messages as needed and using a traditional message map approach is recommended. If you have done a thorough risk assessment, this will facilitate the process. Plan and exercise (at least a table-top exercise) so that all the decision-makers will work with you in the release of information without any undue delay.

Dr. L. Darryl Armstrong is a crisis and emergency communications and management consultant. He can be reached at or 888-340-2206.

The lost art of listening – 10 steps to develop your skills

Several years ago, we started going to Tybee Island, Ga., a quaint, somewhat eccentric version of Key West, Fla., off the coast of Savannah. Over the years at Tybee, we have met quite a few characters, made quite a few friends and learned some lessons applicable to life and the business world.
Two Tybee people in particular have given me a great deal of understanding about being successful in business and life. I am proud to say that Mr. Vince and Jimbo are my friends.Mr. Vince and Jimbo (I have not changed their names to protect their innocence) worked in the same type of business for years — something akin to collections of medical payments, as I recall.

To meet these two fellows with their charming smiles, quiet Southern voices and twinkles in their eyes, you would not guess they were collectors of bills — maybe collectors of stories and songs, but not bills.The reality is that they did moonlight at one time as “singers” at a local establishment with their bartender friend, who could actually sing. They laughingly referred to themselves as The Overachievers. Yet, I digress.

What I learned from these folks just by being with them is the importance of listening. Despite their many experiences, they were eager to listen to others tell about their experiences.I have come to believe that listening is the most important communication skill available to us as business people. Few of us practice this skill effectively in business or our everyday lives.

I am sure Mr. Vince and Jimbo successfully used listening skills in customer service situations because they demonstrate this so well in their personal lives.

As a child, I was often reminded that a child was expected to be seen and not heard. These were the “early” days of developing my listening behavior.And frankly, I realized that I like to listen and watch people. I have learned a great deal about people by watching their behaviors and listening carefully to their stories and observing their nonverbal behaviors.I also have learned how to be more compassionate, empathetic and understanding by listening to people who have gone through, or about to go through, a tragic event in their lives.

Listening has helped me write eulogies to celebrate the lives of those who have passed on. Listening has helped me construct wedding vows that unite people in marriage.Listening has helped me deal with customers and clients who really don’t know what they need or want. These clients know they need some kind of help, but are unable to articulate exactly what that is.

By listening, I develop the necessary understanding of a situation so that I can help the client better understand what is really needed. When we listen to our clients, we are providing them with a much needed form of “therapy.”By listening carefully, I can work with angry customers. I demonstrate to them that I care about them and what they have to say.They help me to help them solve the problem.

To practice good listening there are 10 key points to remember.

1. Don’t assume you’ve heard the story before. The Earl of Chesterfield Phillip Stanhope once said, “Many a man would rather you heard his story than granted his request.” And, who knows, you may actually pick up on something you missed before.Every problem deserves to be heard through to the end. People want to be respected, and the greatest respect we can show them is to truly listen to what they have to say.

2. Don’t second guess the speaker.Nothing is more irritating than to begin talking and then have the listener jump into the middle of one of your sentences saying, “I know what you’re talking about.” This gives the speaker the impression you are in a hurry and just want to ease them out of the office or get them off the telephone.Even though you may be trying to empathize with them, you need to hear all of the information before commenting. And, more importantly, they need to be able to tell you all the information.

3. Suspend your judgment until you’ve heard the situation through to the end.

4. Take notes. Frequently someone who has a problem will tell you more than you need to know about a situation. It is important that you listen for the key facts, and taking notes can help you zero in on the real issues.

5. Be careful about giving off your own negative non-verbal signals as you listen.

6. Much of how we feel is often transmitted through facial expressions or the way in which we hold our body. Be as relaxed as you can be and keep your facial expressions and body movements noncommittal.

7. Be patient. It helps a customer to vent (remember, this is therapy for them) and gives you time to think.

The other day at the airport I was sitting and reading a business article and enjoying my coffee. A stranger sat down beside me. I acknowledged him non-verbally, and then he started talking and talking and talking.He talked for almost 10 minutes about a bad experience he had that morning at breakfast and the terrible service he had received. I listened intently.I learned that his name is George, and that he is a CEO of a major company in Atlanta. He gave me his card and I shared mine.

Finally, as his business companion approached, he said, “You know you would make a good therapist. Thanks for listening.”I told him I have a great deal of practice. You see a good facilitator is a better listener. And, one day, he may need a good facilitator.You never know.

As my grandfather always said, “God gave us two ears and one mouth.”

The next time your client or even a stranger needs to talk, take the time to listen.8. Don’t feel obligated to reply to every statement. Keep listening and only respond to the important points. Remember you can’t fix everything.

9. Listen to understand rather than spending the time mentally preparing your next remark.

10. Be sure to ask inviting and open-ended questions that can result in more informative answers. Then, recap what you heard and clarify any points you didn’t understand.

Listening is truly an art.Let’s not pretend we know it all.

Socrates said, “Wisest is he that knows he does not know” in 399 BC. It was true then and it is true now.We learn from those who have a story to share. We should not feel awkward listening to folks at all levels.

We first must learn — and listening is the first step — before we can teach. And even then, there is more to learn.

Justice for All

Justice for All

I will miss Corrine Whitehead and the spirit she brought to the debate of issues of importance to our region.


Memorialized in May this year at the Ramey Cemetery in Lyon County, the service was fitting for a woman who was a legend in her fight for issues related to social and environmental justice. Described as a fierce but gracious activist for western Kentucky, she was a regional heroine to many and her influence reached across our nation.

I first encountered her in the 1970s when Harl Barnett, the publisher of the Tribune-Courier asked me to do a feature profile on her. At that time, she was the impetus behind securing Hollywood actor Tom Ewell to assist in directing the production of “Babes in Toyland” at Ken Lake amphitheater.

I would encounter her over the next two decades – sometimes as an antagonist when I worked for the federal government, and later as a protagonist when I started my public engagement firm in the 1990s.

Antagonist or protagonist, Whitehead taught me much about the importance of getting people to the table and keeping them there to talk. It was said, from age 19 until she passed at age 94, that she was a stalwart and consistent force against injustices, be it in the arts, human rights, the environment, or the intrusiveness of government in a person’s rights granted under our Constitution.

I know this to be true because I had seen her hold her own with arrogant and recalcitrant government managers and corporate executives. However, for some reason, she never intimidated me, rather she caused me to reflect on the importance of keeping everyone at the table to talk through the problem and find a solution that was mutually acceptable. That principle would later be the basis for our public engagement practice.

Having been displaced from her childhood home by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), she became a fighting voice for families who had been there for generations.

During the ’70s, I helped her and the federal managers engage in dialogue on the matters of clear-cutting timber and maintaining access roads into cemeteries within Land Between the Lakes. In the ’80s, I assisted her in establishing a dialogue about the threat of invasive species and water, and air quality issues on Kentucky Lake and the Tennessee River. Moreover, in the mid-’80s, she outlined the dangers to the region’s infrastructure that could be wrought by an earthquake along the New Madrid fault.

Here is what you and I, as small business owners, and what government managers could learn from such an activist:

1. Listen to understand. I witnessed people who did not bother to listen carefully to the viewpoints, and at times, the demands, of Whitehead and her constituency. When someone brings us a problem, an issue or concern, even a question, it is incumbent on us to understand first what is being said or asked before we engage in the collaborative process of seeking a solution.

2. Passion will always trump bureaucracy. Few people, especially at the federal government level, believed Whitehead would change the process of eminent domain; however, representing approximately 5,000 families from Between the Rivers, she and her constituency argued for the right to a trial by jury regarding compensation for properties seized under the federal provision of eminent domain. The case stemmed from the seizure of land in Between the Rivers to create a national demonstration area in the 1960s. The Supreme Court sided with her argument for such a trial; unfortunately for the former residents, the ruling was not retroactive to the Between the Rivers’ complainants. Her passion for justice, combined with her research and analytical reasoning, demonstrated that the government’s project utilization and actual use (how many people would benefit vs. those displaced) were grossly overestimated. The project never achieved the 10 million visitors it projected for the first decade of operation nor has it ever. Passion for a cause and knowledge can overcome most any objection.

3. Know your opposition and their weaknesses. When it came to people’s health and the environment, she was at the tip of the spear. In the 1980s, Whitehead founded the Coalition for Health Concerns, a nonprofit group that advocated for environmental justice. She and her constituency fought to have LWD, a hazardous waste incinerator on the Tennessee River in Calvert City closed, and they were successful. They later advocated for compensation for workers whose health was impacted by their work at the US Department of Energy’s Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; this was also a successful campaign. When people have been harmed, justice will prevail when persistence is applied, and you understand your opposition.

4. Vision is fraught with responsibility. The New Madrid earthquake of 1811-12 changed the course of the Mississippi River for a few days and formed Reelfoot Lake. In the 1980s, Whitehead’s research was primarily responsible for bringing public awareness of the earthquake vulnerability of the areas of western Kentucky and Tennessee and southeast Missouri. Agencies such as TVA, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and DOE, along with the U.S. Geological Survey Service were persuaded to assist in addressing the emergency management requirements of the region. Vision requires those who have it to accept the responsibility to get things done.

In 1990 when we established Armstrong and Associates (, I received a facilitation contract for DOE for a series of public meetings in Kentucky and Tennessee.

At the initial session in Paducah, I saw Whitehead for the first time in several years. We greeted each other respectfully, and she seemed pleased when I explained that I had started our firm with the mission of engaging in collaboration, often between differing parties, that would lead to mutually agreeable outcomes. I am grateful I had the foresight to thank her that evening for what she had taught me and others about the need for dialogue and collaboration in the face of disagreement.

With a sly smile and a firm handshake, she looked me directly in the eye and with authority said, “And don’t you forget it.”

Whitehead was an example of what Dr. Margaret Meade, the great anthropologist, and sociologist once exclaimed, “Never doubt that a small group of people can change the world, indeed, it is the only thing that ever does.”

L. Darryl Armstrong is a crisis prevention and management consultant. He can be reached at 1-888-340-2006 or His website is He is available on a limited basis for speaking engagements and workshops.